Source code for dill._dill

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
# Author: Mike McKerns (mmckerns @caltech and @uqfoundation)
# Copyright (c) 2008-2015 California Institute of Technology.
# Copyright (c) 2016-2019 The Uncertainty Quantification Foundation.
# License: 3-clause BSD.  The full license text is available at:
#  -
dill: a utility for serialization of python objects

Based on code written by Oren Tirosh and Armin Ronacher.
Extended to a (near) full set of the builtin types (in types module),
and coded to the pickle interface, by <[email protected]>.
Initial port to python3 by Jonathan Dobson, continued by mmckerns.
Test against "all" python types (Std. Lib. CH 1-15 @ 2.7) by mmckerns.
Test against CH16+ Std. Lib. ... TBD.
__all__ = ['dump','dumps','load','loads','dump_session','load_session',

import logging
log = logging.getLogger("dill")
def _trace(boolean):
    """print a trace through the stack when pickling; useful for debugging"""
    if boolean: log.setLevel(logging.INFO)
    else: log.setLevel(logging.WARN)

stack = dict()  # record of 'recursion-sensitive' pickled objects

import os
import sys
diff = None
_use_diff = False
PY3 = (sys.hexversion >= 0x30000f0)
# OLDER: 3.0 <= x < 3.4 *OR* x < 2.7.10  #NOTE: guessing relevant versions
OLDER = (PY3 and sys.hexversion < 0x30400f0) or (sys.hexversion < 0x2070af0)
PY34 = (0x30400f0 <= sys.hexversion < 0x30500f0)
if PY3: #XXX: get types from .objtypes ?
    import builtins as __builtin__
    from pickle import _Pickler as StockPickler, Unpickler as StockUnpickler
    from _thread import LockType
    if (sys.hexversion >= 0x30200f0):
        from _thread import RLock as RLockType
        from threading import _RLock as RLockType
   #from io import IOBase
    from types import CodeType, FunctionType, MethodType, GeneratorType, \
        TracebackType, FrameType, ModuleType, BuiltinMethodType
    BufferType = memoryview #XXX: unregistered
    ClassType = type # no 'old-style' classes
    EllipsisType = type(Ellipsis)
   #FileType = IOBase
    NotImplementedType = type(NotImplemented)
    SliceType = slice
    TypeType = type # 'new-style' classes #XXX: unregistered
    XRangeType = range
    DictProxyType = type(object.__dict__)
    import __builtin__
    from pickle import Pickler as StockPickler, Unpickler as StockUnpickler
    from thread import LockType
    from threading import _RLock as RLockType
    from types import CodeType, FunctionType, ClassType, MethodType, \
         GeneratorType, DictProxyType, XRangeType, SliceType, TracebackType, \
         NotImplementedType, EllipsisType, FrameType, ModuleType, \
         BufferType, BuiltinMethodType, TypeType
from pickle import HIGHEST_PROTOCOL, PicklingError, UnpicklingError
    from pickle import DEFAULT_PROTOCOL
except ImportError:
import __main__ as _main_module
import marshal
import gc
# import zlib
from weakref import ReferenceType, ProxyType, CallableProxyType
from functools import partial
from operator import itemgetter, attrgetter
# new in python3.3
if sys.hexversion < 0x03030000:
    FileNotFoundError = IOError
if PY3 and sys.hexversion < 0x03040000:
else: GENERATOR_FAIL = False    
    import ctypes
    HAS_CTYPES = True
    # if using `pypy`, pythonapi is not found
    IS_PYPY = not hasattr(ctypes, 'pythonapi')
except ImportError:
    HAS_CTYPES = False
    IS_PYPY = False
NumpyUfuncType = None
NumpyArrayType = None
    if OLDER:
        raise AttributeError('find_spec not found')
    import importlib
    if not importlib.machinery.PathFinder().find_spec('numpy'):
        raise ImportError("No module named 'numpy'")
    NumpyUfuncType = True
    NumpyArrayType = True
except AttributeError:
        import imp
        NumpyUfuncType = True
        NumpyArrayType = True
    except ImportError:
except ImportError:
def __hook__():
    global NumpyArrayType, NumpyUfuncType
    from numpy import ufunc as NumpyUfuncType
    from numpy import ndarray as NumpyArrayType
    return True
if NumpyArrayType: # then has numpy
    def ndarraysubclassinstance(obj):
        if type(obj) in (TypeType, ClassType):
            return False # all classes return False
        try: # check if is ndarray, and elif is subclass of ndarray
            cls = getattr(obj, '__class__', None)
            if cls is None: return False
            elif cls is TypeType: return False
            elif 'numpy.ndarray' not in str(getattr(cls, 'mro', int.mro)()):
                return False
        except ReferenceError: return False # handle 'R3' weakref in 3.x
        except TypeError: return False
        # anything below here is a numpy array (or subclass) instance
        __hook__() # import numpy (so the following works!!!)
        # verify that __reduce__ has not been overridden
        NumpyInstance = NumpyArrayType((0,),'int8')
        if id(obj.__reduce_ex__) == id(NumpyInstance.__reduce_ex__) and \
           id(obj.__reduce__) == id(NumpyInstance.__reduce__): return True
        return False
    def numpyufunc(obj):
        if type(obj) in (TypeType, ClassType):
            return False # all classes return False
        try: # check if is ufunc
            cls = getattr(obj, '__class__', None)
            if cls is None: return False
            elif cls is TypeType: return False
            if 'numpy.ufunc' not in str(getattr(cls, 'mro', int.mro)()):
                return False
        except ReferenceError: return False # handle 'R3' weakref in 3.x
        except TypeError: return False
        # anything below here is a numpy ufunc
        return True
    def ndarraysubclassinstance(obj): return False
    def numpyufunc(obj): return False

# make sure to add these 'hand-built' types to _typemap
if PY3:
    CellType = type((lambda x: lambda y: x)(0).__closure__[0])
    CellType = type((lambda x: lambda y: x)(0).func_closure[0])
# new in python2.5
if sys.hexversion >= 0x20500f0:
    from types import GetSetDescriptorType
    if not IS_PYPY:
        from types import MemberDescriptorType
        # oddly, MemberDescriptorType is GetSetDescriptorType
        # while, member_descriptor does exist otherwise... is this a pypy bug?
        class _member(object):
            __slots__ = ['descriptor']
        MemberDescriptorType = type(_member.descriptor)
    WrapperDescriptorType = MethodType
    MethodDescriptorType = FunctionType
    ClassMethodDescriptorType = FunctionType
    WrapperDescriptorType = type(type.__repr__)
    MethodDescriptorType = type(type.__dict__['mro'])
    ClassMethodDescriptorType = type(type.__dict__['__prepare__' if PY3 else 'mro'])

MethodWrapperType = type([].__repr__)
PartialType = type(partial(int,base=2))
SuperType = type(super(Exception, TypeError()))
ItemGetterType = type(itemgetter(0))
AttrGetterType = type(attrgetter('__repr__'))

def get_file_type(*args, **kwargs):
    open = kwargs.pop("open",
    f = open(os.devnull, *args, **kwargs)
    t = type(f)
    return t

FileType = get_file_type('rb', buffering=0)
TextWrapperType = get_file_type('r', buffering=-1)
BufferedRandomType = get_file_type('r+b', buffering=-1)
BufferedReaderType = get_file_type('rb', buffering=-1)
BufferedWriterType = get_file_type('wb', buffering=-1)
    from _pyio import open as _open
    PyTextWrapperType = get_file_type('r', buffering=-1, open=_open)
    PyBufferedRandomType = get_file_type('r+b', buffering=-1, open=_open)
    PyBufferedReaderType = get_file_type('rb', buffering=-1, open=_open)
    PyBufferedWriterType = get_file_type('wb', buffering=-1, open=_open)
except ImportError:
    PyTextWrapperType = PyBufferedRandomType = PyBufferedReaderType = PyBufferedWriterType = None
    from cStringIO import StringIO, InputType, OutputType
except ImportError:
    if PY3:
        from io import BytesIO as StringIO
        from StringIO import StringIO
    InputType = OutputType = None
    __IPYTHON__ is True # is ipython
    ExitType = None     # IPython.core.autocall.ExitAutocall
    singletontypes = ['exit', 'quit', 'get_ipython']
except NameError:
    try: ExitType = type(exit) # apparently 'exit' can be removed
    except NameError: ExitType = None
    singletontypes = []

### File modes
# Pickles the file handle, preserving mode. The position of the unpickled
# object is as for a new file handle.
# Pickles the file contents, creating a new file if on load the file does
# not exist. The position = min(pickled position, EOF) and mode is chosen
# as such that "best" preserves behavior of the original file.
# Pickles the entire file (handle and contents), preserving mode and position.

### Shorthands (modified from python2.5/lib/
def copy(obj, *args, **kwds):
    """use pickling to 'copy' an object"""
    return loads(dumps(obj, *args, **kwds))

def dump(obj, file, protocol=None, byref=None, fmode=None, recurse=None):#, strictio=None):
    """pickle an object to a file"""
    from .settings import settings
    strictio = False #FIXME: strict=True needs cleanup
    if protocol is None: protocol = settings['protocol']
    if byref is None: byref = settings['byref']
    if fmode is None: fmode = settings['fmode']
    if recurse is None: recurse = settings['recurse']
    stack.clear()  # clear record of 'recursion-sensitive' pickled objects
    pik = Pickler(file, protocol)
    pik._main = _main_module
    # apply kwd settings
    pik._byref = bool(byref)
    pik._strictio = bool(strictio)
    pik._fmode = fmode
    pik._recurse = bool(recurse)
    # register if the object is a numpy ufunc
    # thanks to Paul Kienzle for pointing out ufuncs didn't pickle
    if NumpyUfuncType and numpyufunc(obj):
        def save_numpy_ufunc(pickler, obj):
  "Nu: %s" % obj)
            StockPickler.save_global(pickler, obj)
  "# Nu")
        # NOTE: the above 'save' performs like:
        #   import copy_reg
        #   def udump(f): return f.__name__
        #   def uload(name): return getattr(numpy, name)
        #   copy_reg.pickle(NumpyUfuncType, udump, uload)
    # register if the object is a subclassed numpy array instance
    if NumpyArrayType and ndarraysubclassinstance(obj):
        def save_numpy_array(pickler, obj):
  "Nu: (%s, %s)" % (obj.shape,obj.dtype))
            npdict = getattr(obj, '__dict__', None)
            f, args, state = obj.__reduce__()
            pickler.save_reduce(_create_array, (f,args,state,npdict), obj=obj)
  "# Nu")
    # end hack
    if GENERATOR_FAIL and type(obj) == GeneratorType:
        msg = "Can't pickle %s: attribute lookup builtins.generator failed" % GeneratorType
        raise PicklingError(msg)
    stack.clear()  # clear record of 'recursion-sensitive' pickled objects

def dumps(obj, protocol=None, byref=None, fmode=None, recurse=None):#, strictio=None):
    """pickle an object to a string"""
    file = StringIO()
    dump(obj, file, protocol, byref, fmode, recurse)#, strictio)
    return file.getvalue()

def load(file, ignore=None):
    """unpickle an object from a file"""
    from .settings import settings
    if ignore is None: ignore = settings['ignore']
    pik = Unpickler(file)
    pik._main = _main_module
    # apply kwd settings
    pik._ignore = bool(ignore)
    obj = pik.load()
    if type(obj).__module__ == getattr(_main_module, '__name__', '__main__'):
        if not ignore:
            # point obj class to main
            try: obj.__class__ = getattr(pik._main, type(obj).__name__)
            except (AttributeError,TypeError): pass # defined in a file
   #_main_module.__dict__.update(obj.__dict__) #XXX: should update globals ?
    return obj

def loads(str, ignore=None):
    """unpickle an object from a string"""
    file = StringIO(str)
    return load(file, ignore)

# def dumpzs(obj, protocol=None):
#     """pickle an object to a compressed string"""
#     return zlib.compress(dumps(obj, protocol))

# def loadzs(str):
#     """unpickle an object from a compressed string"""
#     return loads(zlib.decompress(str))

### End: Shorthands ###

### Pickle the Interpreter Session
def _module_map():
    """get map of imported modules"""
    from collections import defaultdict
    modmap = defaultdict(list)
    items = 'items' if PY3 else 'iteritems'
    for name, module in getattr(sys.modules, items)():
        if module is None:
        for objname, obj in module.__dict__.items():
            modmap[objname].append((obj, name))
    return modmap

def _lookup_module(modmap, name, obj, main_module): #FIXME: needs work
    """lookup name if module is imported"""
    for modobj, modname in modmap[name]:
        if modobj is obj and modname != main_module.__name__:
            return modname

def _stash_modules(main_module):
    modmap = _module_map()
    imported = []
    original = {}
    items = 'items' if PY3 else 'iteritems'
    for name, obj in getattr(main_module.__dict__, items)():
        source_module = _lookup_module(modmap, name, obj, main_module)
        if source_module:
            imported.append((source_module, name))
            original[name] = obj
    if len(imported):
        import types
        newmod = types.ModuleType(main_module.__name__)
        newmod.__dill_imported = imported
        return newmod
        return original

def _restore_modules(main_module):
    if '__dill_imported' not in main_module.__dict__:
    imports = main_module.__dict__.pop('__dill_imported')
    for module, name in imports:
        exec("from %s import %s" % (module, name), main_module.__dict__)

#NOTE: 06/03/15 renamed main_module to main
def dump_session(filename='/tmp/session.pkl', main=None, byref=False):
    """pickle the current state of __main__ to a file"""
    from .settings import settings
    protocol = settings['protocol']
    if main is None: main = _main_module
    if hasattr(filename, 'write'):
        f = filename
        f = open(filename, 'wb')
        if byref:
            main = _stash_modules(main)
        pickler = Pickler(f, protocol)
        pickler._main = main
        pickler._byref = False   # disable pickling by name reference
        pickler._recurse = False # disable pickling recursion for globals
        pickler._session = True  # is best indicator of when pickling a session
        if f is not filename:  # If newly opened file

def load_session(filename='/tmp/session.pkl', main=None):
    """update the __main__ module with the state from the session file"""
    if main is None: main = _main_module
    if hasattr(filename, 'read'):
        f = filename
        f = open(filename, 'rb')
        unpickler = Unpickler(f)
        unpickler._main = main
        unpickler._session = True
        module = unpickler.load()
        unpickler._session = False
        if f is not filename:  # If newly opened file

### End: Pickle the Interpreter

class MetaCatchingDict(dict):
    def get(self, key, default=None):
            return self[key]
        except KeyError:
            return default

    def __missing__(self, key):
        if issubclass(key, type):
            return save_type
            raise KeyError()

### Extend the Picklers
class Pickler(StockPickler):
    """python's Pickler extended to interpreter sessions"""
    dispatch = MetaCatchingDict(StockPickler.dispatch.copy())
    _main = None
    _session = False
    from .settings import settings
    _byref = settings['byref']
    _strictio = False
    _fmode = settings['fmode']
    _recurse = settings['recurse']

    def __init__(self, *args, **kwds):
        _byref = kwds.pop('byref', Pickler._byref)
       #_strictio = kwds.pop('strictio', Pickler._strictio)
        _fmode = kwds.pop('fmode', Pickler._fmode)
        _recurse = kwds.pop('recurse', Pickler._recurse)
        StockPickler.__init__(self, *args, **kwds)
        self._main = _main_module
        self._diff_cache = {}
        self._byref = _byref
       #self._strictio = _strictio
        self._fmode = _fmode
        self._recurse = _recurse

class Unpickler(StockUnpickler):
    """python's Unpickler extended to interpreter sessions and more types"""
    from .settings import settings
    _ignore = settings['ignore']
    _main = None
    _session = False

    def find_class(self, module, name):
        if (module, name) == ('__builtin__', '__main__'):
            return self._main.__dict__ #XXX: above set w/save_module_dict
        elif (module, name) == ('__builtin__', 'NoneType'):
            return type(None) #XXX: special case: NoneType missing
        if module == 'dill.dill': module = 'dill._dill'
        return StockUnpickler.find_class(self, module, name)

    def __init__(self, *args, **kwds):
        _ignore = kwds.pop('ignore', Unpickler._ignore)
        StockUnpickler.__init__(self, *args, **kwds)
        self._main = _main_module
        self._ignore = _ignore

def dispatch_table():
    """get the dispatch table of registered types"""
    return Pickler.dispatch

pickle_dispatch_copy = StockPickler.dispatch.copy()

def pickle(t, func):
    """expose dispatch table for user-created extensions"""
    Pickler.dispatch[t] = func

def register(t):
    def proxy(func):
        Pickler.dispatch[t] = func
        return func
    return proxy

def _revert_extension():
    for type, func in list(StockPickler.dispatch.items()):
        if func.__module__ == __name__:
            del StockPickler.dispatch[type]
            if type in pickle_dispatch_copy:
                StockPickler.dispatch[type] = pickle_dispatch_copy[type]

def use_diff(on=True):
    reduces size of pickles by only including object which have changed.
    Decreases pickle size but increases CPU time needed.
    Also helps avoid some unpicklable objects.
    MUST be called at start of script, otherwise changes will not be recorded.
    global _use_diff, diff
    _use_diff = on
    if _use_diff and diff is None:
            from . import diff as d
            import diff as d
        diff = d

def _create_typemap():
    import types
    if PY3:
        d = dict(list(__builtin__.__dict__.items()) + \
        builtin = 'builtins'
        d = types.__dict__.iteritems()
        builtin = '__builtin__'
    for key, value in d:
        if getattr(value, '__module__', None) == builtin \
        and type(value) is type:
            yield key, value
_reverse_typemap = dict(_create_typemap())
    'CellType': CellType,
    'MethodWrapperType': MethodWrapperType,
    'PartialType': PartialType,
    'SuperType': SuperType,
    'ItemGetterType': ItemGetterType,
    'AttrGetterType': AttrGetterType,
    'FileType': FileType,
    'BufferedRandomType': BufferedRandomType,
    'BufferedReaderType': BufferedReaderType,
    'BufferedWriterType': BufferedWriterType,
    'TextWrapperType': TextWrapperType,
    'PyBufferedRandomType': PyBufferedRandomType,
    'PyBufferedReaderType': PyBufferedReaderType,
    'PyBufferedWriterType': PyBufferedWriterType,
    'PyTextWrapperType': PyTextWrapperType,
if ExitType:
    _reverse_typemap['ExitType'] = ExitType
if InputType:
    _reverse_typemap['InputType'] = InputType
    _reverse_typemap['OutputType'] = OutputType
if not IS_PYPY:
    _reverse_typemap['WrapperDescriptorType'] = WrapperDescriptorType
    _reverse_typemap['MethodDescriptorType'] = MethodDescriptorType
    _reverse_typemap['ClassMethodDescriptorType'] = ClassMethodDescriptorType
    _reverse_typemap['MemberDescriptorType'] = MemberDescriptorType
if PY3:
    _typemap = dict((v, k) for k, v in _reverse_typemap.items())
    _typemap = dict((v, k) for k, v in _reverse_typemap.iteritems())

def _unmarshal(string):
    return marshal.loads(string)

def _load_type(name):
    return _reverse_typemap[name]

def _create_type(typeobj, *args):
    return typeobj(*args)

def _create_function(fcode, fglobals, fname=None, fdefaults=None, \
                                      fclosure=None, fdict=None):
    # same as FunctionType, but enable passing __dict__ to new function,
    # __dict__ is the storehouse for attributes added after function creation
    if fdict is None: fdict = dict()
    func = FunctionType(fcode, fglobals or dict(), fname, fdefaults, fclosure)
    func.__dict__.update(fdict) #XXX: better copy? option to copy?
    return func

def _create_ftype(ftypeobj, func, args, kwds):
    if kwds is None:
        kwds = {}
    if args is None:
        args = ()
    return ftypeobj(func, *args, **kwds)

def _create_lock(locked, *args): #XXX: ignores 'blocking'
    from threading import Lock
    lock = Lock()
    if locked:
        if not lock.acquire(False):
            raise UnpicklingError("Cannot acquire lock")
    return lock

def _create_rlock(count, owner, *args): #XXX: ignores 'blocking'
    lock = RLockType()
    if owner is not None:
        lock._acquire_restore((count, owner))
    if owner and not lock._is_owned():
        raise UnpicklingError("Cannot acquire lock")
    return lock

# thanks to matsjoyce for adding all the different file modes
def _create_filehandle(name, mode, position, closed, open, strictio, fmode, fdata): # buffering=0
    # only pickles the handle, not the file contents... good? or StringIO(data)?
    # (for file contents see:
    # NOTE: handle special cases first (are there more special cases?)
    names = {'<stdin>':sys.__stdin__, '<stdout>':sys.__stdout__,
             '<stderr>':sys.__stderr__} #XXX: better fileno=(0,1,2) ?
    if name in list(names.keys()):
        f = names[name] #XXX: safer "f=sys.stdin"
    elif name == '<tmpfile>':
        f = os.tmpfile()
    elif name == '<fdopen>':
        import tempfile
        f = tempfile.TemporaryFile(mode)
        # treat x mode as w mode
        if "x" in mode and sys.hexversion < 0x03030000:
            raise ValueError("invalid mode: '%s'" % mode)
            exists = os.path.exists(name)
            exists = False
        if not exists:
            if strictio:
                raise FileNotFoundError("[Errno 2] No such file or directory: '%s'" % name)
            elif "r" in mode and fmode != FILE_FMODE:
                name = '<fdopen>' # or os.devnull?
            current_size = 0 # or maintain position?
            current_size = os.path.getsize(name)

        if position > current_size:
            if strictio:
                raise ValueError("invalid buffer size")
            elif fmode == CONTENTS_FMODE:
                position = current_size
        # try to open the file by name
        # NOTE: has different fileno
            #FIXME: missing: *buffering*, encoding, softspace
            if fmode == FILE_FMODE:
                f = open(name, mode if "w" in mode else "w")
                if "w" not in mode:
                    f = open(name, mode)
            elif name == '<fdopen>': # file did not exist
                import tempfile
                f = tempfile.TemporaryFile(mode)
            elif fmode == CONTENTS_FMODE \
               and ("w" in mode or "x" in mode):
                # stop truncation when opening
                flags = os.O_CREAT
                if "+" in mode:
                    flags |= os.O_RDWR
                    flags |= os.O_WRONLY
                f = os.fdopen(, flags), mode)
                # set name to the correct value
                if PY3:
                    r = getattr(f, "buffer", f)
                    r = getattr(r, "raw", r)
           = name
                    if not HAS_CTYPES:
                        raise ImportError("No module named 'ctypes'")
                    class FILE(ctypes.Structure):
                        _fields_ = [("refcount", ctypes.c_long),
                                    ("type_obj", ctypes.py_object),
                                    ("file_pointer", ctypes.c_voidp),
                                    ("name", ctypes.py_object)]

                    class PyObject(ctypes.Structure):
                        _fields_ = [
                            ("ob_refcnt", ctypes.c_int),
                            ("ob_type", ctypes.py_object)
                    #FIXME: CONTENTS_FMODE fails for pypy due to issue #1233
                    ctypes.cast(id(f), ctypes.POINTER(FILE)) = name
                    ctypes.cast(id(name), ctypes.POINTER(PyObject)).contents.ob_refcnt += 1
                assert == name
                f = open(name, mode)
        except (IOError, FileNotFoundError):
            err = sys.exc_info()[1]
            raise UnpicklingError(err)
    if closed:
    elif position >= 0 and fmode != HANDLE_FMODE:
    return f

def _create_stringi(value, position, closed):
    f = StringIO(value)
    if closed: f.close()
    return f

def _create_stringo(value, position, closed):
    f = StringIO()
    if closed: f.close()
    return f

class _itemgetter_helper(object):
    def __init__(self):
        self.items = []
    def __getitem__(self, item):

class _attrgetter_helper(object):
    def __init__(self, attrs, index=None):
        self.attrs = attrs
        self.index = index
    def __getattribute__(self, attr):
        attrs = object.__getattribute__(self, "attrs")
        index = object.__getattribute__(self, "index")
        if index is None:
            index = len(attrs)
            attrs[index] = ".".join([attrs[index], attr])
        return type(self)(attrs, index)

if PY3:
    def _create_cell(contents):
        return (lambda y: contents).__closure__[0]
    def _create_cell(contents):
        return (lambda y: contents).func_closure[0]

def _create_weakref(obj, *args):
    from weakref import ref
    if obj is None: # it's dead
        if PY3:
            from collections import UserDict
            from UserDict import UserDict
        return ref(UserDict(), *args)
    return ref(obj, *args)

def _create_weakproxy(obj, callable=False, *args):
    from weakref import proxy
    if obj is None: # it's dead
        if callable: return proxy(lambda x:x, *args)
        if PY3:
            from collections import UserDict
            from UserDict import UserDict
        return proxy(UserDict(), *args)
    return proxy(obj, *args)

def _eval_repr(repr_str):
    return eval(repr_str)

def _create_array(f, args, state, npdict=None):
   #array = numpy.core.multiarray._reconstruct(*args)
    array = f(*args)
    if npdict is not None: # we also have saved state in __dict__
    return array

def _create_namedtuple(name, fieldnames, modulename):
    mod = _import_module(modulename, safe=True)
    if mod is not None:
            return getattr(mod, name)
    import collections
    t = collections.namedtuple(name, fieldnames)
    t.__module__ = modulename
    return t

def _getattr(objclass, name, repr_str):
    # hack to grab the reference directly
    try: #XXX: works only for __builtin__ ?
        attr = repr_str.split("'")[3]
        return eval(attr+'.__dict__["'+name+'"]')
            attr = objclass.__dict__
            if type(attr) is DictProxyType:
                attr = attr[name]
                attr = getattr(objclass,name)
            attr = getattr(objclass,name)
        return attr

def _get_attr(self, name):
    # stop recursive pickling
    return getattr(self, name, None) or getattr(__builtin__, name)

def _dict_from_dictproxy(dictproxy):
    _dict = dictproxy.copy() # convert dictproxy to dict
    _dict.pop('__dict__', None)
    _dict.pop('__weakref__', None)
    _dict.pop('__prepare__', None)
    return _dict

def _import_module(import_name, safe=False):
        if '.' in import_name:
            items = import_name.split('.')
            module = '.'.join(items[:-1])
            obj = items[-1]
            return __import__(import_name)
        return getattr(__import__(module, None, None, [obj]), obj)
    except (ImportError, AttributeError):
        if safe:
            return None

def _locate_function(obj, session=False):
    if obj.__module__ in ['__main__', None]: # and session:
        return False
    found = _import_module(obj.__module__ + '.' + obj.__name__, safe=True)
    return found is obj

#def save_code(pickler, obj):
#"Co: %s" % obj)
#    pickler.save_reduce(_unmarshal, (marshal.dumps(obj),), obj=obj)
#"# Co")
#    return

# The following function is based on 'save_codeobject' from 'cloudpickle'
# Copyright (c) 2012, Regents of the University of California.
# Copyright (c) 2009 `PiCloud, Inc. <>`_.
# License:
def save_code(pickler, obj):"Co: %s" % obj)
    if PY3:
        args = (
            obj.co_argcount, obj.co_kwonlyargcount, obj.co_nlocals,
            obj.co_stacksize, obj.co_flags, obj.co_code, obj.co_consts,
            obj.co_names, obj.co_varnames, obj.co_filename, obj.co_name,
            obj.co_firstlineno, obj.co_lnotab, obj.co_freevars, obj.co_cellvars
        args = (
            obj.co_argcount, obj.co_nlocals, obj.co_stacksize, obj.co_flags,
            obj.co_code, obj.co_consts, obj.co_names, obj.co_varnames,
            obj.co_filename, obj.co_name, obj.co_firstlineno, obj.co_lnotab,
            obj.co_freevars, obj.co_cellvars
    pickler.save_reduce(CodeType, args, obj=obj)"# Co")

def save_module_dict(pickler, obj):
    if is_dill(pickler) and obj == pickler._main.__dict__ and not pickler._session:"D1: <dict%s" % str(obj.__repr__).split('dict')[-1]) # obj
        if PY3:
            pickler.write(bytes('c__builtin__\n__main__\n', 'UTF-8'))
            pickler.write('c__builtin__\n__main__\n')"# D1")
    elif (not is_dill(pickler)) and (obj == _main_module.__dict__):"D3: <dict%s" % str(obj.__repr__).split('dict')[-1]) # obj
        if PY3:
            pickler.write(bytes('c__main__\n__dict__\n', 'UTF-8'))
            pickler.write('c__main__\n__dict__\n')   #XXX: works in general?"# D3")
    elif '__name__' in obj and obj != _main_module.__dict__ \
    and type(obj['__name__']) is str \
    and obj is getattr(_import_module(obj['__name__'],True), '__dict__', None):"D4: <dict%s" % str(obj.__repr__).split('dict')[-1]) # obj
        if PY3:
            pickler.write(bytes('c%s\n__dict__\n' % obj['__name__'], 'UTF-8'))
            pickler.write('c%s\n__dict__\n' % obj['__name__'])"# D4")
    else:"D2: <dict%s" % str(obj.__repr__).split('dict')[-1]) # obj
        if is_dill(pickler) and pickler._session:
            # we only care about session the first pass thru
            pickler._session = False
        StockPickler.save_dict(pickler, obj)"# D2")

def save_classobj(pickler, obj): #FIXME: enable pickler._byref
   #stack[id(obj)] = len(stack), obj
    if obj.__module__ == '__main__': #XXX: use _main_module.__name__ everywhere?"C1: %s" % obj)
        pickler.save_reduce(ClassType, (obj.__name__, obj.__bases__,
                                        obj.__dict__), obj=obj)
                                       #XXX: or obj.__dict__.copy()), obj=obj) ?"# C1")
    else:"C2: %s" % obj)
        StockPickler.save_global(pickler, obj)"# C2")

def save_lock(pickler, obj):"Lo: %s" % obj)
    pickler.save_reduce(_create_lock, (obj.locked(),), obj=obj)"# Lo")

def save_rlock(pickler, obj):"RL: %s" % obj)
    r = obj.__repr__() # don't use _release_save as it unlocks the lock
    count = int(r.split('count=')[1].split()[0].rstrip('>'))
    owner = int(r.split('owner=')[1].split()[0]) if PY3 else getattr(obj, '_RLock__owner')
    pickler.save_reduce(_create_rlock, (count,owner,), obj=obj)"# RL")

def save_itemgetter(pickler, obj):"Ig: %s" % obj)
    helper = _itemgetter_helper()
    pickler.save_reduce(type(obj), tuple(helper.items), obj=obj)"# Ig")

def save_attrgetter(pickler, obj):"Ag: %s" % obj)
    attrs = []
    helper = _attrgetter_helper(attrs)
    pickler.save_reduce(type(obj), tuple(attrs), obj=obj)"# Ag")

def _save_file(pickler, obj, open_):
    if obj.closed:
        position = 0
        if obj in (sys.__stdout__, sys.__stderr__, sys.__stdin__):
            position = -1
            position = obj.tell()
    if is_dill(pickler) and pickler._fmode == FILE_FMODE:
        f = open_(, "r")
        fdata =
        fdata = ""
    if is_dill(pickler):
        strictio = pickler._strictio
        fmode = pickler._fmode
        strictio = False
        fmode = 0 # HANDLE_FMODE
    pickler.save_reduce(_create_filehandle, (, obj.mode, position,
                                             obj.closed, open_, strictio,
                                             fmode, fdata), obj=obj)

@register(FileType) #XXX: in 3.x has buffer=0, needs different _create?
def save_file(pickler, obj):"Fi: %s" % obj)
    f = _save_file(pickler, obj, open)"# Fi")
    return f

if PyTextWrapperType:
    def save_file(pickler, obj):"Fi: %s" % obj)
        f = _save_file(pickler, obj, _open)"# Fi")
        return f

# The following two functions are based on 'saveCStringIoInput'
# and 'saveCStringIoOutput' from spickle
# Copyright (c) 2011 by science+computing ag
# License:
if InputType:
    def save_stringi(pickler, obj):"Io: %s" % obj)
        if obj.closed:
            value = ''; position = 0
            value = obj.getvalue(); position = obj.tell()
        pickler.save_reduce(_create_stringi, (value, position, \
                                              obj.closed), obj=obj)"# Io")

    def save_stringo(pickler, obj):"Io: %s" % obj)
        if obj.closed:
            value = ''; position = 0
            value = obj.getvalue(); position = obj.tell()
        pickler.save_reduce(_create_stringo, (value, position, \
                                              obj.closed), obj=obj)"# Io")

def save_functor(pickler, obj):"Fu: %s" % obj)
    pickler.save_reduce(_create_ftype, (type(obj), obj.func, obj.args,
                                        obj.keywords), obj=obj)"# Fu")

def save_super(pickler, obj):"Su: %s" % obj)
    pickler.save_reduce(super, (obj.__thisclass__, obj.__self__), obj=obj)"# Su")

def save_builtin_method(pickler, obj):
    if obj.__self__ is not None:
        if obj.__self__ is __builtin__:
            module = 'builtins' if PY3 else '__builtin__'
            _t = "B1"
  "%s: %s" % (_t, obj))
            module = obj.__self__
            _t = "B3"
  "%s: %s" % (_t, obj))
        if is_dill(pickler):
            _recurse = pickler._recurse
            pickler._recurse = False
        pickler.save_reduce(_get_attr, (module, obj.__name__), obj=obj)
        if is_dill(pickler):
            pickler._recurse = _recurse"# %s" % _t)
    else:"B2: %s" % obj)
        StockPickler.save_global(pickler, obj)"# B2")

@register(MethodType) #FIXME: fails for 'hidden' or 'name-mangled' classes
def save_instancemethod0(pickler, obj):# example: cStringIO.StringI"Me: %s" % obj) #XXX: obj.__dict__ handled elsewhere?
    if PY3:
        pickler.save_reduce(MethodType, (obj.__func__, obj.__self__), obj=obj)
        pickler.save_reduce(MethodType, (obj.im_func, obj.im_self,
                                         obj.im_class), obj=obj)"# Me")

if sys.hexversion >= 0x20500f0:
    if not IS_PYPY:
        def save_wrapper_descriptor(pickler, obj):
  "Wr: %s" % obj)
            pickler.save_reduce(_getattr, (obj.__objclass__, obj.__name__,
                                           obj.__repr__()), obj=obj)
  "# Wr")
        def save_wrapper_descriptor(pickler, obj):
  "Wr: %s" % obj)
            pickler.save_reduce(_getattr, (obj.__objclass__, obj.__name__,
                                           obj.__repr__()), obj=obj)
  "# Wr")

    def save_instancemethod(pickler, obj):"Mw: %s" % obj)
        pickler.save_reduce(getattr, (obj.__self__, obj.__name__), obj=obj)"# Mw")

elif not IS_PYPY:
    def save_wrapper_descriptor(pickler, obj):"Wr: %s" % obj)
        pickler.save_reduce(_getattr, (obj.__objclass__, obj.__name__,
                                       obj.__repr__()), obj=obj)"# Wr")

def save_cell(pickler, obj):"Ce: %s" % obj)
    f = obj.cell_contents
    pickler.save_reduce(_create_cell, (f,), obj=obj)"# Ce")

# The following function is based on 'saveDictProxy' from spickle
# Copyright (c) 2011 by science+computing ag
# License:
if not IS_PYPY:
    def save_dictproxy(pickler, obj):"Dp: %s" % obj)
        attr = obj.get('__dict__')
       #pickler.save_reduce(_create_dictproxy, (attr,'nested'), obj=obj)
        if type(attr) == GetSetDescriptorType and attr.__name__ == "__dict__" \
        and getattr(attr.__objclass__, "__dict__", None) == obj:
            pickler.save_reduce(getattr, (attr.__objclass__,"__dict__"),obj=obj)
  "# Dp")
        # all bad below... so throw ReferenceError or TypeError
        raise ReferenceError("%s does not reference a class __dict__" % obj)

def save_slice(pickler, obj):"Sl: %s" % obj)
    pickler.save_reduce(slice, (obj.start, obj.stop, obj.step), obj=obj)"# Sl")

def save_singleton(pickler, obj):"Si: %s" % obj)
    pickler.save_reduce(_eval_repr, (obj.__repr__(),), obj=obj)"# Si")

def _proxy_helper(obj): # a dead proxy returns a reference to None
    """get memory address of proxy's reference object"""
    _repr = repr(obj)
    try: _str = str(obj)
    except ReferenceError: # it's a dead proxy
        return id(None)
    if _str == _repr: return id(obj) # it's a repr
    try: # either way, it's a proxy from here
        address = int(_str.rstrip('>').split(' at ')[-1], base=16)
    except ValueError: # special case: proxy of a 'type'
        if not IS_PYPY:
            address = int(_repr.rstrip('>').split(' at ')[-1], base=16)
            objects = iter(gc.get_objects())
            for _obj in objects:
                if repr(_obj) == _str: return id(_obj)
            # all bad below... nothing found so throw ReferenceError
            msg = "Cannot reference object for proxy at '%s'" % id(obj)
            raise ReferenceError(msg)
    return address

def _locate_object(address, module=None):
    """get object located at the given memory address (inverse of id(obj))"""
    special = [None, True, False] #XXX: more...?
    for obj in special:
        if address == id(obj): return obj
    if module:
        if PY3:
            objects = iter(module.__dict__.values())
            objects = module.__dict__.itervalues()
    else: objects = iter(gc.get_objects())
    for obj in objects:
        if address == id(obj): return obj
    # all bad below... nothing found so throw ReferenceError or TypeError
    try: address = hex(address)
    except TypeError:
        raise TypeError("'%s' is not a valid memory address" % str(address))
    raise ReferenceError("Cannot reference object at '%s'" % address)

def save_weakref(pickler, obj):
    refobj = obj()"R1: %s" % obj)
   #refobj = ctypes.pythonapi.PyWeakref_GetObject(obj) # dead returns "None"
    pickler.save_reduce(_create_weakref, (refobj,), obj=obj)"# R1")

def save_weakproxy(pickler, obj):
    refobj = _locate_object(_proxy_helper(obj))
        _t = "R2""%s: %s" % (_t, obj))
    except ReferenceError:
        _t = "R3""%s: %s" % (_t, sys.exc_info()[1]))
   #callable = bool(getattr(refobj, '__call__', None))
    if type(obj) is CallableProxyType: callable = True
    else: callable = False
    pickler.save_reduce(_create_weakproxy, (refobj, callable), obj=obj)"# %s" % _t)

def save_module(pickler, obj):
    if False: #_use_diff:
        if obj.__name__ != "dill":
                changed = diff.whats_changed(obj, seen=pickler._diff_cache)[0]
            except RuntimeError:  # not memorised module, probably part of dill
      "M1: %s with diff" % obj)
      "Diff: %s", changed.keys())
                pickler.save_reduce(_import_module, (obj.__name__,), obj=obj,
      "# M1")
                return"M2: %s" % obj)
        pickler.save_reduce(_import_module, (obj.__name__,), obj=obj)"# M2")
        # if a module file name starts with prefix, it should be a builtin
        # module, so should be pickled as a reference
        if hasattr(obj, "__file__"):
            names = ["base_prefix", "base_exec_prefix", "exec_prefix",
                     "prefix", "real_prefix"]
            builtin_mod = any([obj.__file__.startswith(os.path.normpath(getattr(sys, name)))
                           for name in names if hasattr(sys, name)])
            builtin_mod = builtin_mod or 'site-packages' in obj.__file__
            builtin_mod = True
        if obj.__name__ not in ("builtins", "dill") \
           and not builtin_mod or is_dill(pickler) and obj is pickler._main:
  "M1: %s" % obj)
            _main_dict = obj.__dict__.copy() #XXX: better no copy? option to copy?
            [_main_dict.pop(item, None) for item in singletontypes
                + ["__builtins__", "__loader__"]]
            pickler.save_reduce(_import_module, (obj.__name__,), obj=obj,
  "# M1")
  "M2: %s" % obj)
            pickler.save_reduce(_import_module, (obj.__name__,), obj=obj)
  "# M2")

def save_type(pickler, obj):
   #stack[id(obj)] = len(stack), obj #XXX: probably don't obj in all cases below
    if obj in _typemap:"T1: %s" % obj)
        pickler.save_reduce(_load_type, (_typemap[obj],), obj=obj)"# T1")
    elif issubclass(obj, tuple) and all([hasattr(obj, attr) for attr in ('_fields','_asdict','_make','_replace')]):
        # special case: namedtuples"T6: %s" % obj)
        pickler.save_reduce(_create_namedtuple, (getattr(obj, "__qualname__", obj.__name__), obj._fields, obj.__module__), obj=obj)"# T6")
    elif obj.__module__ == '__main__':
        if issubclass(type(obj), type):
        #   try: # used when pickling the class as code (or the interpreter)
            if is_dill(pickler) and not pickler._byref:
                # thanks to Tom Stepleton pointing out pickler._session unneeded
                _t = 'T2'
      "%s: %s" % (_t, obj))
                _dict = _dict_from_dictproxy(obj.__dict__)
        #   except: # punt to StockPickler (pickle by class reference)
      "T5: %s" % obj)
                StockPickler.save_global(pickler, obj)
      "# T5")
            _t = 'T3'
  "%s: %s" % (_t, obj))
            _dict = obj.__dict__
       #print (_dict)
       #print ("%s\n%s" % (type(obj), obj.__name__))
       #print ("%s\n%s" % (obj.__bases__, obj.__dict__))
        for name in _dict.get("__slots__", []):
            del _dict[name]
        pickler.save_reduce(_create_type, (type(obj), obj.__name__,
                                           obj.__bases__, _dict), obj=obj)"# %s" % _t)
    # special cases: NoneType
    elif obj is type(None):"T7: %s" % obj)
        if PY3:
            pickler.write(bytes('c__builtin__\nNoneType\n', 'UTF-8'))
            pickler.write('c__builtin__\nNoneType\n')"# T7")
    else:"T4: %s" % obj)
       #print (obj.__dict__)
       #print ("%s\n%s" % (type(obj), obj.__name__))
       #print ("%s\n%s" % (obj.__bases__, obj.__dict__))
        StockPickler.save_global(pickler, obj)"# T4")

def save_property(pickler, obj):"Pr: %s" % obj)
    pickler.save_reduce(property, (obj.fget, obj.fset, obj.fdel, obj.__doc__),
                        obj=obj)"# Pr")

def save_classmethod(pickler, obj):"Cm: %s" % obj)
    im_func = '__func__' if PY3 else 'im_func'
        orig_func = getattr(obj, im_func)
    except AttributeError:  # Python 2.6
        orig_func = obj.__get__(None, object)
        if isinstance(obj, classmethod):
            orig_func = getattr(orig_func, im_func) # Unbind
    pickler.save_reduce(type(obj), (orig_func,), obj=obj)"# Cm")

def save_function(pickler, obj):
    if not _locate_function(obj): #, pickler._session):"F1: %s" % obj)
        if getattr(pickler, '_recurse', False):
            # recurse to get all globals referred to by obj
            from .detect import globalvars
            globs = globalvars(obj, recurse=True, builtin=True)
            # remove objects that have already been serialized
           #stacktypes = (ClassType, TypeType, FunctionType)
           #for key,value in list(globs.items()):
           #    if isinstance(value, stacktypes) and id(value) in stack:
           #        del globs[key]
            # ABORT: if self-references, use _recurse=False
            if id(obj) in stack: # or obj in globs.values():
                globs = obj.__globals__ if PY3 else obj.func_globals
            globs = obj.__globals__ if PY3 else obj.func_globals
        _byref = getattr(pickler, '_byref', None)
        _recurse = getattr(pickler, '_recurse', None)
        _memo = (id(obj) in stack) and (_recurse is not None)
       #print("stack: %s + '%s'" % (set(hex(i) for i in stack),hex(id(obj))))
        stack[id(obj)] = len(stack), obj
        if PY3:
            #NOTE: workaround for 'super' (see issue #75)
            _super = ('super' in getattr(obj.__code__,'co_names',())) and (_byref is not None)
            if _super: pickler._byref = True
            if _memo: pickler._recurse = False
            pickler.save_reduce(_create_function, (obj.__code__,
                                globs, obj.__name__,
                                obj.__defaults__, obj.__closure__,
                                obj.__dict__), obj=obj)
            _super = ('super' in getattr(obj.func_code,'co_names',())) and (_byref is not None) and getattr(pickler, '_recurse', False)
            if _super: pickler._byref = True
            if _memo: pickler._recurse = False
            pickler.save_reduce(_create_function, (obj.func_code,
                                globs, obj.func_name,
                                obj.func_defaults, obj.func_closure,
                                obj.__dict__), obj=obj)
        if _super: pickler._byref = _byref
        if _memo: pickler._recurse = _recurse
       #clear = (_byref, _super, _recurse, _memo)
       #print(clear + (OLDER,))
        #NOTE: workaround for #234; "partial" still is problematic for recurse
        if OLDER and not _byref and (_super or (not _super and _memo) or (not _super and not _memo and _recurse)): pickler.clear_memo()
       #if _memo:
       #    stack.remove(id(obj))
       #   #pickler.clear_memo()
       #   #StockPickler.clear_memo(pickler)"# F1")
    else:"F2: %s" % obj)
        StockPickler.save_global(pickler, obj) #NOTE: also takes name=..."# F2")

# quick sanity checking
def pickles(obj,exact=False,safe=False,**kwds):
    """quick check if object pickles with dill"""
    if safe: exceptions = (Exception,) # RuntimeError, ValueError
        exceptions = (TypeError, AssertionError, PicklingError, UnpicklingError)
        pik = copy(obj, **kwds)
            result = bool(pik.all() == obj.all())
        except AttributeError:
            result = pik == obj
        if result: return True
        if not exact:
            result = type(pik) == type(obj)
            if result: return result
            # class instances might have been dumped with byref=False
            return repr(type(pik)) == repr(type(obj)) #XXX: InstanceType?
        return False
    except exceptions:
        return False

def check(obj, *args, **kwds):
    """check pickling of an object across another process"""
   # == undocumented ==
   # python -- the string path or executable name of the selected python
   # verbose -- if True, be verbose about printing warning messages
   # all other args and kwds are passed to dill.dumps
    verbose = kwds.pop('verbose', False)
    python = kwds.pop('python', None)
    if python is None:
        import sys
        python = sys.executable
    # type check
    isinstance(python, str)
    import subprocess
    fail = True
        _obj = dumps(obj, *args, **kwds)
        fail = False
        if fail and verbose:
            print("DUMP FAILED")
    msg = "%s -c import dill; print(dill.loads(%s))" % (python, repr(_obj))
    msg = "SUCCESS" if not,2)) else "LOAD FAILED"
    if verbose:

# use to protect against missing attributes
def is_dill(pickler, child=None):
    "check the dill-ness of your pickler"
    if (child is False) or PY34 or (not hasattr(pickler.__class__, 'mro')):
        return 'dill' in pickler.__module__
    return Pickler in pickler.__class__.mro()

def _extend():
    """extend pickle with all of dill's registered types"""
    # need to have pickle not choke on _main_module?  use is_dill(pickler)
    for t,func in Pickler.dispatch.items():
            StockPickler.dispatch[t] = func
        except: #TypeError, PicklingError, UnpicklingError
  "skip: %s" % t)
        else: pass

del diff, _use_diff, use_diff